Document Cover - Recommended Emergency Preparedness Guidelines for Rail Transit Systems

 

1. Report No.

UMTA-MA-06-0152-85-1
2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

RECOMMENDED EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS GUIDELINES FOR RAIL TRANSIT SYSTEMS
5. Report Date

March 1985
6. Performing Organization Code

DTS-65
7. Author(s)

William T. Hathaway, Stephanie H. Markos, Robert J. Pawlak
8. Performing Organization Report No.

DOT-VNTSC-UMTA-84-26
9. Performing Organization Name and Address

U.S. Department of Transportation
Research and Special Programs Administration
John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Cambridge, MA 02142-1093
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

UM478/R4607
11. Contract or Grant No.
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

U.S. Department of Transportation
Urban Mass Transportation
Office of Technical Assistance
Washington, DC 20590
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Final Report
April 1982 - March 1984
14. Sponsoring Agency Code

URT-6
15. Supplementary Notes

16. Abstract

The Recommended Emergency Preparedness Guidelines contained in this document are designed to help rail transit systems to assess, develop, document and improve their capability for responding to emergency situations, and to coordinate these efforts with emergency response organizations in a manner which best protects the traveling pubic and transit system facilities and equipment.

Four major areas of emergency preparedness are addressed. The first section presents recommendations for Emergency Plan Development, including emergency response procedures, agreements with emergency organizations, and supporting documentation. The training section outlines recommended training for both transit system and emergency response personnel, as well as programs to promote public awareness. The last two sections --Facilities and Equipment, and Vehicles--focus on performance requirements and emergency equipment recommendations to facilitate passenger evacuation and minimize transit property damage.

These guidelines have been developed over the past several years, with input obtained from discussions and workshops with transit system and emergency response organization personnel, and from literature sources such as industry guidelines, codes and standards.
17. Key Words
Rail, Rail Transit, Emergency Preparedness, Emergency Plan, Emergency Response, Emergency Equipment, Evacuation, Access/ Egress
18. Distribution Statement

DOCUMENT IS AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC THROUGH THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE, SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161
19. Security Classification (of this report)

 
UNCLASSIFIED
20. Security Classification (of this page)

 
UNCLASSIFIED
21. No. of Pages

 
68
22. Price

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8/72)                                     Reproduction of this completed page authorized

 

U.S. Department of Transportation

Federal Transit Agency

UMTA-MA-06-0152-85-1

DOT-TSC-UMTA-84-26

 

 

RECOMMENDED EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS GUIDELINES FOR RAIL TRANSIT SYSTEMS

 

 

U.S. Department of Transportation

Research and Special Programs Administration

John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center

Cambridge, MA 02142

 

March 1985 Final Report

Reprint November 1997

HTML Edition April 1999

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOTICE

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship

of the Department of Transportation in the interest of

information exchange. The United States Government

assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof.

 

 

NOTICE

The United States Government does not endorse

products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers'

names appear herein solely because they are

considered essential to the objective of this report.

 

 

 

PREFACE

This document contains recommended guidelines which ate designed to assist rail transit systems to assess, develop, document and improve their capability for responding to emergency situations, and to coordinate these efforts with emergency response organizations in a manner which best protects the traveling public and transit system facilities and equipment.

These guidelines have been developed over the past several years, with input obtained from discussions and workshops with transit system and emergency response organization personnel, and from literature sources such as industry guidelines, codes and standards.

The Recommended Emergency Preparedness Guidelines were prepared under the sponsorship of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA), Office of Technical Assistance, Safety and Security Staff. The authors wish to thank Lloyd G. Murphy and Roy Field of UMTA, who provided direction and contributed valuable insights and helpful comments to enhance the final document.

The authors also wish to acknowledge the important contributions of the Emergency Preparedness/Fire Life Safety subcommittee of the American Public Transit Association (APTA) Rail Safety Committee. Additional thanks go to Ralph S. Weule of the Bay Area Rapid Transit District, sub-committee chairman, and Donald J. Dzinski, APTA staff advisor, for their detailed review and comments on the final draft of the Recommended Guidelines.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Emergency Preparedness Concept

1.2 Scope

1.2.1 Emergency Plan Development

1.2.2 Training

1.2.3 Facilities and Equipment

1.2.4 Vehicles

1.3 Other Emergency Preparedness Documentation

2. EMERGENCY PLAN DEVELOPMENT

2.1 Policy

2.2 Scope

2.3 Inter-Organizational Agreements

2.4 Transit System Functions and Responsibilities

2.5 Emergency Procedures

2.6 General Purpose Capability Criteria

2.7 Emergency Plan Supporting Documentation

2.7.1 Decision-Making Aids

2.7.2 Accident Information from Other Transit Systems

2.7.3 Standard Operations Documentation Used During Emergencies

3. Training

3.1 Rail Transit System Personnel Training

3.1.1 Initial Training

3.1.2 Specialized Emergency

3.1.3 Refresher/Retraining Programs

3.1.4 Training Methods and Equipment

3.1.5 Inter-Transit System Information Exchange

3.2 Emergency Response Organization Personnel Training

3.3 Public Education

3.3.1 Passenger Awareness

3.3.2 School Safety Program

4. FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

4.1 Passenger Stations

4.1.1 Construction

4.1.2 Lighting

4.1.3 Access/Egress

4.1.4 Communications

4.1.5 Ventilation and Air Conditioning

4.1.6 Support Equipment and Systems

4.1.7 Flammable and Combustible Liquid/Vapor Intrusion

4.1.8 Flood Protection

4.1.9 Traction Power

4.1.10 Graphics

4.1.11 Emergency Power

4.2 Trainway

4.2.1 Construction

4.2.2 Lighting

4.2.3 Access/Egress

4.2.4 Walkways

4.2.5 Communications

4.2.6 Ventilation

4.2.7 Support Equipment and Systems

4.2.8 Intrusion Alarm

4.2.9 Flammable and Combustible Liquid/Vapor Intrusion

4.2.10 Flood Protection

4.2.11 Traction Power

4.2.12 Graphics

4.2.13 Emergency Power

4.3 Central Control

4.3.1 Emergency Exits

4.3.2 Communications

4.3.3 Ventilation Equipment Controls

4.3.4 Traction Power Removal

4.3.5 Graphics

5. VEHICLES 5-1

5.1 Passenger Rail Vehicles

5.1.1 Construction

5.1.2 Lighting

5.1.3 Access/Egress

5.1.4 Communications

5.1.5 Ventilation

5.1.6 On-Board Support Equipment

5.1.7 Traction Power

5.1.8 Graphics

5.1.9 Emergency Power

5.1 Vehicles Used in Emergencies

APPENDIX A – IN-ORGANIZATIONAL AGREEMENTS

APPENDIX B – EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT

 

LIST OF TABLES

2-1 EXAMPLES OF TRANSIT SYSTEM EMERGENCY PLAN SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION

2-2 EXAMPLES OF RAIL TRANSIT SYSTEM STANDARD OPERATIONS DOCUMENTATION USED DURING EMERGENCIES

 

 

 

 

1. INTRODUCTION

While the record of rail transit safety has been very good and few major accidents have occurred, it cannot be assumed that serious emergency events will not take place in the future. A review of past experience reveals that many minor incidents could easily have developed into life-threatening events had they not been detected and dealt with in a timely and effective manner.

In order to respond effectively to such occurrences, transit systems must engage in careful advanced planning. The level of a transit system's preparedness will directly influence the magnitude of hazard or damage in an emergency situation.

Recognizing this need, and in response to recommendations made by the National Transportation Safety Board's hearing concerning rail transit system safety, the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) commenced development of recommended emergency preparedness guidelines, with the cooperation of the American Public Transit Association and representatives from various transit systems and emergency response organizations. These guidelines are intended to help rail transit systems to assess, develop, document and improve their site-specific capability for responding to emergency situations, and to coordinate these efforts with emergency response organizations in a manner which best protects the traveling public and transit system facilities and equipment.

1.1 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS CONCEPT

Safety planning is composed of two basic phases: a preventive phase and a reactive phase. The preventive phase is concerned with preventing the occurrence of the incident or accident. The reactive phase is concerned with the response once an incident or accident has occurred, and with minimizing its effect. The recommended emergency preparedness guidelines address this reactive phase and as such are directed not at preventing the incident or accident itself but at assisting rail transit systems in preparing for and responding to its occurrence in a timely and effective manner.

1.2 SCOPE

The emergency preparedness guidelines address four primary elements of a transit system's preparedness: Emergency Plan Development, Training, Facilities and Equipment, and Vehicles. Developed from input obtained from discussions and workshops with transit system and emergency response organization personnel, and from literature sources such as industry design guidelines, codes and standards, they are intended to reflect the best practices of the industry. These performance-oriented guidelines should serve to stimulate the improvements and innovations necessary to provide the public with safe and reliable transit operations.

The contents of the Emergency Plan Development and Training sections present minimum recommendations, procedures, and criteria which should be employed by all transit systems to evaluate and improve their respective emergency response capabilities. The contents of the Facilities and Equipment and Vehicles sections present minimum recommendations for the timely and effective evacuation of passengers as well as for the protection of equipment. It is intended that the guidelines in these two sections be used primarily for the planning of new systems, system extensions, and system rehabilitation. As such, they are not expected to have a major impact on existing rail transit system facilities and equipment or vehicles.

1.2.1 Emergency Plan Development This section outlines the general elements which should be included in emergency plans. These elements are: policy, scope, agreements with emergency response organizations, rail transit system functions and responsibilities, general response capability criteria, and emergency preparedness supporting documentation.

1.2.2 Training

This section deals with the training of transit employees and emergency response organization personnel in the operational and emergency procedures of rail transit systems. Education of the riding public in regard to emergency procedures and equipment as well as required passenger emergency response is also included.

1.2.3 Facilities and Equipment

The major elements of a rail transit system's facilities and equipment are passenger stations, trainway, and Central Control. Components of these elements addressed in the guidelines include construction, lighting, access/egress, communications, ventilation, fire protection support equipment, intrusion protection (i.e., flammable/combustible liquid/gas, flood, highway), traction power removal, graphics, and emergency power.

1.2.4 Vehicles

For the purposes of these guidelines, "vehicles" are considered to be of two general types: passenger rail vehicles, and rail vehicles used for emergencies. The passenger rail vehicle section addresses transit vehicle construction, lighting, access/egress, communications, ventilation, on-board support equipment, mechanical equipment, graphics, and emergency power. The section for rail transit vehicles used in emergencies concerns vehicles used to respond to emergencies which occur within the confined trainway environment.

1.3 OTHER EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS DOCUMENTATION

In addition to the Recommended Emergency Preparedness Guidelines for Rail Transit Systems contained in this report, the following resource documents should be utilized by rail transit systems to assess the status of their emergency response capability and to plan needed improvements:

(1) NFPA 130 Fixed Guideway Transit Systems. 1983.

(2) Guidelines for Design of Rapid Transit Facilities. APTA, 1981.

(3) Moving People Safely. APTA, 1977. (Under revision.)

(4) UMTA, "Light Rail Transit Car Specification Guide." Final Report, December 1981, Report No. UMTA-MA-06-00250-81-4.

(5) UMTA, "Transit Industry Technical Specifications for the Procurement of Rapid Railcars." Final Report, ~uly 1981, Report No. UMTA-IT-01775-81-3.

(6) NTSB, Special Study: Railroad Emergency Procedures, Report No. NTSBRSS-80-1.

 

 

2. EMERGENCY PLAN DEVELOPMENT

The recent experiences of several transit systems have demonstrated the need for development of formal emergency plans. Lack of planning and formal agreements specifying jurisdictional boundaries, chain of command and communications has, in some cases, hampered the ability to respond effectively to emergency situations. In addition, the absence of clear emergency procedures or information has resulted in confusion and delayed emergency response. The recognition of difficulties in these areas has prompted many transit systems to develop individual emergency plans which address the task of responding to emergencies in a timely and effective manner.

An Emergency Plan should contain the following elements: statement of policy, definition of scope, agreements with emergency response organizations, transit system functions and responsibilities, emergency procedures, general response capability criteria, and documentation supporting the emergency plan.

2.1 POLICY

The statement of policy should set forth the goals and objectives to be addressed by the tail transit system in developing its own emergency response capability and coordinating it with other emergency response organizations. The policy statement should indicate an explicit commitment to safety on the part of the top-level management of the rail transit system.

2.2 SCOPE

The plan should establish what constitutes an emergency. In addition, procedures should be developed for:

2.3 INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL AGREEMENTS

Many emergency situations which occur in transit systems require or involve emergency response efforts from organizations outside the transit system. To maximize the effectiveness of this response and thereby minimize the effects of the emergency situation, there must be coordination among all the involved organizations. To ensure proper coordination and response, rail transit systems should establish agreements with these outside organizations prior to the occurrence of emergencies (see Appendix A).

Agreements represent the broad, top-level structure of legislative, legal, or political documents that serve as the formal basis of mutual understanding between parties. They should exist between the transit system and emergency response organizations outside the transit system, such as fire departments, emergency medical services, and police departments. Each agreement should be negotiated, consented to, and maintained within the transit system and each emergency response organization. Contents should include an outline of the type, quality, and response time of emergency-related services that can be made available to the transit system. They should also define financial responsibilities (where applicable) and establish the means for developing detailed procedures.

With the aid of these agreements, coordination during actual emergency situations should simply consist of following pre-established procedures. Any additional coordination needed because of the uniqueness of a specific emergency situation should be accomplished by following 1) the previously established chain of command contained in the agreements and 2) general precedent as documented in existing procedures, agreements, etc. inter-organizational agreements should contain as a minimum:

2.4 TRANSIT SYSTEM FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

The internal organizational structure of a rail transit system together with Rule Books, Standard Operating Procedures for Operating Personnel (SOPs), and emergency plan supporting documentation should provide sufficient basis for internal transit system coordination. The establishment of a chain of command assigning functions and responsibilities to appropriate personnel is crucial to the emergency response capabilities of a transit system. The following list contains the basic elements which should enable transit systems to coordinate internal and external response:

2.5 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

Emergency procedures for each of several emergency categories should be established. The procedures should specify necessary tasks to be performed within a time or event sequence by appropriate transit system and emergency response personnel. The emergency procedures should as a minimum address the following emergency categories:

2.6 GENERAL RESPONSE CAPABILITY CRITERIA

Each transit system should address the following key response areas:

Adequately designed procedures for these emergency preparedness response areas should insure consistency in their preparation. The following questions comprise a suggested checklist:

2.7 EMERGENCY PLAN SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION

Individual procedures are typically written as if one person could ideally and simultaneously visualize concurrent events arid actions taking place at various locations and involving various people throughout the transit system (Table 2-1 lists examples of transit system emergency plan supporting documentation). The proper sequence and relative timing of information-gathering, decision-making, commands and responses of all participants are then portrayed as a series of entries on printed pages. Emergency procedure documents intended for training, memorization, and developing experience may seem wordy and bulky when seen in terms of the action and decision-making time frame required of a Central Controller or other operating personnel in a true emergency situation. It cannot be assumed that an actual emergency will be quickly identified and properly classified as to type, location and severity. Nor can it be assumed that the emergency will elicit the proper initial commands, or the proper initial response to the commands.

A real-life, one-of-a-kind, dynamic emergency situation is not easily portrayed. Yet early decisions are crucial to all that follow. Sequences of calls or handoffs of commands are usually based on a few key early decisions (often irreversible) by rail transit system personnel, such as the decision to cut traction power in certain sections, the decision to evacuate a train between stations, or the decision to call the fire department. Such decisions should ideally be made in a logical fashion, with each piece of information being considered to narrow the list of alternative remedial strategies. The effectiveness of the emergency preparedness plans and/or procedures document should be based on the assumption that key decisions must be made as quickly as possible. To facilitate this, simplified summary checklists should be instituted as memory aids for use in an actual emergency. A checklist should exist for each central position. Each checklist should be specially prepared to address the expected actions of that position.

2.7.1 Decision-Making Aids

Transit systems have developed various forms of "decision-making aids" for emergency preparedness information. These decision-making aids are used to determine which particular set of emergency procedures to follow, and also provide specific information regarding location of equipment, exits, etc. The decision-making aids also offer a means of shortening the response time of the Central Controller. Each rail transit system should have its own system-specific collection of such aids, tailored to the individual needs of the transit personnel who will use them during emergencies. Examples of typical decision-making aid concepts that may prove useful to rail transit systems are described below and listed in Table 2-1.

 

TABLE 2-1. EXAMPLES OF TRANSIT SYSTEM EMERGENCY PLAN SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION

1. Policy and Agreements.

2. Inter-Organizational Emergency Procedures.

3. Decision-Making Aids for Central Controllers.

CTA Milwaukee-Kimball and State Street Subway Maps

"Fire Maps" used at WMATA.

PATH Carousel of slides (maps) in Central Control console.

4. Decision-Making Aids for Operating Personnel.

5. Decision-Making Aids for Emergency Response Personnel.

6. Major "Accident Investigation" reports from past emergencies.

 

 

2.7.1.1 Decision-Making Aids for Central Controllers - Once the Central Controller determines the type and location of the emergency incident, it is possible to evaluate various alternative evacuation routes, ventilation strategies, and access routes for emergency response personnel. After careful consideration, the best alternative is picked and commands initiated accordingly. These commands might use location information such as power section numbers, pump numbers, and fan designations, obtained from other sources. In order to act effectively, the Central Controller must have immediate access to this type of information. The decision-making aids that follow will help facilitate this process.

2.7.1.2 Decision-Making Aids for Other Operating Personnel and Emergency Response Personnel - Decision-making aids for operating personnel other than Central Controllers should be portable, handy, and consistent with the corresponding aids used by the Central Controllers. Such documentation should be considered as essential.

2.7.2 Accident Information from Other Transit Systems

Major "Accident Investigation" reports from other transit systems should be utilized in the development and revision of emergency plans. Specific examples of these are the "PATH, Investigation Report, March 16, 1982 Fire;" NTSB accident investigation reports such as the "BART Fire on Train ~117 and Evacuation of Passengers While in Transbay Tube, San Francisco, January 17, 1979;" and other analysis reports such as "Reports on the Transbay Tube Preferred Evacuation Method."

2.7.3 Standard Operations Documentation Used During Emergencies

Facilities, equipment, personnel, and procedures regularly utilized during normal transit operations are also frequently utilized during an emergency. Table 2-2 contains examples of rail transit system standard operations documentation which may be used during emergencies. It is essential that these materials containing information relating to emergency preparedness be kept up to date.

2.7.3.1 Rule Books and Standard Operating Procedures - Most rule books and standard operating procedure books (SOPs) contain sections describing what steps to follow when certain kinds of emergencies occur.

2.7.3.2 Safety Rules and Emergency Procedures - Safety rules and emergency procedures are often included in the same document with standard operating rules and procedures. Safety rules are generally preventive in nature whereas emergency procedures are reactive and correspond to specifically categorized unforeseen events such as derailment, fire, collision, etc.

2.7.3.3 Descriptions of Facilities and Equipment - Facility and equipment information such as maps showing the location of emergency exits, track plans, and yard areas, diagrams of vehicle subsystems, and colored pictures of signal aspects will assist in employee understanding and recall of particular sets of rules or procedures in the event of an emergency. Additional descriptions of facilities and equipment such as aids to maintenance, signal and communications systems, vehicles, etc., are typically found in maintenance shops.

2.7.3.4 Station and Vehicle Graphics - Signs indicating emergency equipment locations and emergency procedures can provide critical information for reacting to emergency situations.

 

TABLE 2-2. EXAMPLES OF RAIL TRANSIT SYSTEM STANDARD OPERATIONS DOCUMENTATION USED DURING EMERGENCIES

1. Rule Books for All Operating Personnel

2. Standard Operating Procedures for All Operating Personnel Safety

3. Rules and Emergency Procedures for All Operating Personnel

4. Descriptions of Facilities and Equipment

5. Graphics in Stations and Vehicles for Passenger Awareness

6. Civil Defense or "Local Disaster Plans"

 

2.7.3.5 Training Materials - Training materials such as brochures, lesson plans, classroom presentations, incident scenarios, films, video tapes, and mock-ups should also be used in preparing for emergencies.

 

 

3. TRAINING

The transit personnel who respond to emergency situations are the most vital element of a transit system's emergency response capability. Proper training of these and other emergency response personnel is therefore essential. Only after adequate training can response personnel be expected to carry out an emergency plan in a timely and effective manner, while making optimum use of facilities, equipment, and vehicles.

The emergency procedures guidelines presented in this section address the following issues:

By and large, transit personnel are familiar with their own equipment and facilities just as emergency response personnel are familiar with theirs. Each group, however, knows less about the equipment and facilities of the other group. Therefore, training improvements should focus on familiarizing fire and life safety personnel and transit system personnel with each other's facilities, equipment, operations, and supporting documentation.

Improvements in facilities and equipment associated with emergency preparedness tend to be more expensive and less frequent than operational changes, so that after the initial round of employee training, further review training in these areas need only occur periodically. On the other hand, operational documentation relating to emergency preparedness is less expensive, easier to improve, and more likely to change than existing facilities and equipment. Training sessions to implement documentation changes should, therefore, occur more frequently to keep abreast of such changes.

Passenger awareness with regard to emergency preparedness procedures deserves special consideration. Passenger behavioral response, as anticipated by the designers of emergency procedures, is crucial. Training of passengers, however, cannot be accomplished in a classroom environment as it can with transit employees and emergency response personnel. Other methods of informing and guiding passengers should therefore be considered. These might include putting safety information posters in advertising spaces on trains and in stations, periodic train operator announcements of safety tips using the public address system, or perhaps distributing brochures at major terminals.

3.1 RAIL TRANSIT SYSTEM PERSONNEL TRAINING

The actions of most transit personnel (particularly train crews) are primarily associated with standard transit operations. Similarly, the largest percentage of initial training for train crews is usually devoted to standard operating procedures. However, this training usually includes preventive safety rules and emergency procedures. Although the majority of transit personnel may never be called upon to use many of these rules and procedures, they should nonetheless be familiar with them. It is recommended that the following training be provided at all transit systems:

3.1.1 Initial Training

Rail transit systems should conduct an initial phase of training for their personnel. This training should include an overview of the rail transit system and should provide a means for employees to familiarize themselves with the operating rules, procedures, the layout of facilities, and the basic location, use and application of communication and emergency equipment as they relate to emergency preparedness. The following elements should be included:

A. Operating Rules

B. Standard Operating Procedures

C. Layout of Facilities

D. Communication Equipment

E. Emergency Equipment

Appendix B contains a typical list of rail transit emergency equipment.

3.1.2 Specialized Emergency Training

Depending on their specific job responsibilities, rail transit employees should be given specialized training involving a variety of emergency situations.

Central Control is often the transit system organization that initiates the response to an emergency situation. Though remote from the emergency scene, well-trained Controllers have the capability of reducing the effects of an emergency situation. To be effective, a Central Controller should be:

Operating and supervisory personnel, maintenance personnel, and transit police should as a minimum be taught the characteristics of and appropriate response to the following emergency situations, depending on their specific job responsibilities:

The remainder of this section focuses on specialized training in the following areas of emergency procedures: emergency tunnel evacuation, emergency tunnel ventilation, firefighting, emergency passenger care, crowd control and panic prevention, uncoupling of rail transit vehicles, and removal of traction power.

A. Emergency Evacuation

B. Emergency Tunnel Ventilation

C. Firefighting

As a general rule, after reporting a fire situation, the first-priority action of transit personnel on the scene should be to assist passenger evacuation and to assist fire department personnel in gaining access to the fire. Many transit systems acknowledge that it is primarily the job of the fire department to actually fight the fire.

However, to instill a sense of self-confidence and personal safety in those transit personnel expected to perform such assistance duties, it is advisable to train them in the rudiments of firefighting. Such training will enable them to: make better decisions during fire emergency situations; fight small fires prior to the arrival of the fire department when it is prudent to do so; and devise improved methods of fire prevention while performing their regular duties. Such training may be developed and conducted in cooperation with local fire and rescue personnel. The firefighting training programs should address the following areas:

D. Passenger Emergency Care Training

Rail transit systems should provide emergency care training to appropriate employees. These emergency care training programs may involve the following:

E. Crowd Control and Panic Prevention

F. Emergency Uncoupling of Rail Cars

G. Removal of Traction Power from Vehicle

3.1.3 Refresher/Retraining Programs

Refresher/retraining programs should be instituted to:

A continuous cycle of specialized training, followed by periodic refresher training, etc., should be performed. Simulation drills, equipment and procedural changes, and employee skills should be reviewed on a regular basis to determine the need for refresher training. Employees should be made to understand the importance of training repetition.

3.1.4 Training Methods and Equipment

Rail transit systems should have formal methods for training train operators, Central Controllers and other personnel. These formal methods should include -but not be limited to - classroom instruction, on-site familiarization, and emergency response training drills for rail transit and emergency response personnel, and the public.

3.1.4.1 Classroom Instruction - The key elements of classroom instruction are the presentation of the contents of written material (e.g., rule books, standard operating procedures, emergency procedures, etc.), discussion of the material, and examinations to test participant comprehension. Classroom instruction can be substantially enhanced through audio-visual training programs and the use of equipment mock-ups.

A. Rulebooks, SOPs and Emergency Procedures

· Materials should be thoroughly discussed and examinations should be administered to appropriate personnel.

B. Audio-Visual Training Program

C. Mock-ups

3.1.4.2 On-Site Familiarization - On-site familiarization for transit employees may be handled by transit systems in a variety of ways, including on-the-job training, walking (or riding) tours, demonstrations and/or hands-on practice sessions.

A. On-the-Job Training

B. Walking Tours

C. Demonstrations/Practice Sessions

3.1.4.3 Emergency Response Training Drills - Emergency response training in the form of drills should be carried out by rail transit systems. The drills may vary from full-scale emergency simulation drills involving both rail transit and emergency response organization personnel, to drills for rail transit personnel only or even for a particular employee (e.g., a train operator). More importantly, the simulation drills should serve as a means for evaluation of the overall emergency response capabilities of the system through careful selection of the time and location of drills, the location of monitors, and the performance of a simulation critique. Drills may be held during revenue service or non-revenue service periods (if they exist), or prior to the start-up phase operations on a new extension or a new rail transit system. The rail transit and emergency response organization drill participants will vary depending on the scope and objectives of the drill.

A. Simulation Drills

The following aspects should be considered in planning and conducting simulation drills:

B. Emergency Simulation Facilities

C. Drill Participants

Although drills are held primarily for transit personnel, other emergency simulation drills should include various emergency response organization personnel. Following is a list of possible rail transit and emergency response organization drill participants:

3.1.5 Inter-Transit System Information Exchange

Rail transit systems should consider sending some of their employees to attend training programs at other rail transit systems. The sharing of ideas and perspectives regarding emergency response capabilities would be in the interest of all participating transit systems. Although this approach is limited - because of the site-specific nature of equipment, local inter-organizational agreements and facility characteristics -attendance of personnel from other transit systems during a particular system's emergency simulation drills could afford valuable insights.

3.2 EMERGENCY RESPONSE ORGANIZATION PERSONNEL TRAINING

Rail transit systems should make training in emergency procedures available to firefighters, local police, ambulance personnel/paramedics, and other emergency response personnel, in accordance with "Inter-Organizational Emergency Procedures" operations documentation and the specific training identified in section 3.1.

Rail transit systems should provide the upper management staff of the fire department with information regarding the coordination of activities associated with rail transit emergency situations.

Rail transit systems should similarly make training available for fire alarm center personnel (fire/rescue dispatchers). Fire alarm center personnel perform an important role in the coordination of a rail transit emergency as the link between the rail transit Central Control operators and fire, police and rescue personnel.

The training programs for emergency response and fire alarm center personnel should encompass all or part of the following areas:

3.3 PUBLIC EDUCATION

Rail transit systems should employ the following methods to improve the public's ability to respond to emergency situations:

3.3.1 Passenger Awareness

Passenger education and training should be conducted to make passengers aware of emergency procedures and enable them to respond properly in the event of an emergency.

This should be accomplished primarily by the distribution of pamphlets, the posting of information in stations and transit vehicles, and broadcasts over the public address systems in the stations and transit vehicles. The information from these various sources must be consistent in content, sufficient for first-time users of the system (especially from posters), but not so overwhelming as to arouse undue concern.

Passenger emergency preparedness training should include information on:

3.3.2 School Safety Program

Rail transit systems should conduct regular safety programs in the schools of the communities adjoining the rail transit system trainway. Such programs should be designed to highlight the numerous safety hazards on rail transit property, such as third rail power, and the dangers of throwing rocks, tampering with switches, placing objects on the tracks, etc. Such programs are especially important for transit systems in the process of developing a new system or extension, prior to initiating operations.

 

 

4. FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

The guidelines presented in this section are designed to help transit systems ensure that they possess the facilities and equipment needed to cope effectively with emergency situations. These guidelines are intended for use primarily in the planning of new systems, system extensions, and system rehabilitation.

The main elements of a rail transit system's facilities and equipment are passenger stations, trainway, and Central Control. Each of these areas and their respective components are considered in this section. In each instance, the guidelines presented here are of a general nature, allowing for the site-specific differences among transit systems. The guidelines have been developed from a variety of sources, including workshops, discussions with transit system personnel, and available literature sources including industry design guidelines, codes, and standards. These guidelines are performance-oriented, and are intended to reflect the best practices of the rail transit industry.

4.1 PASSENGER STATIONS

Rail transit passenger stations are located in four basic environments: underground, elevated, at grade, and open cut. Although rail transit passenger stations located in these different environments have unique characteristics, there are a number of elements common to almost all passenger stations. This section presents guidelines for these common elements. Additional information pertaining to specific station environments may be obtained from the sections describing trainway elements.

4.1.1 Construction

Transit station construction should provide for rapid patron

evacuation and rapid emergency response personnel access for potential

emergency scenarios. With this in mind, transit station construction

should take the following into consideration:

4.1.2. Lighting

Lighting is an essential factor in many emergency situations, particularly in underground stations. It can also play an important role during hours of darkness at elevated, at grade, or open cut passenger stations.

4.1.3 Access/Egress

The amount of available adequate access and egress is an important design consideration for rail transit passenger stations. The number and location of entrances and exits, as well as the arrangement of such facilities as concessions, station attendant kiosks, faregates, revolving gates, public stairways, escalators, and elevators within the passenger station, all determine the extent to which access/egress is judged to be adequate for evacuation during emergency situations.

Station exits are particularly important facilities during emergency situations because they provide the primary means of evacuating passengers from the system. They also provide an entry into the system for fire/rescue personnel.

4.1.4 Communications

Passenger station communication systems make possible the reporting of emergencies and crimes, requests for assistance, announcements to passengers, visual surveillance, and coordination of fire/rescue efforts. The different types of equipment available for these uses are: radio, private automatic branch exchange (PABX), direct line telephones, maintenance line telephones, public address system (PA), intercoms, data transmission cables, and closed circuit television (CCTV).

4.1.5 Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Ventilation (and air conditioning) systems provide passenger comfort by dissipating heat from train and station operations, and by removing objectionable odors. Ventilation systems are also used to purge smoke and heat in the event of a fire. In addition, the proper operation of fans and dampers may play a critical role in confining the fire and smoke to a limited area. Proper design of ventilation systems is essential for emergency preparedness in rail transit stations.

4.1.6 Support Equipment and Systems

4.1.6.1 Fire Protection Equipment

A. Location of Detection and Alarm Boxes

B. Portable Fire Extinguishers

C. Standpipe and Hose Systems

4.1.6.2 Rescue Equipment - Different types of rescue equipment may be stored at rail transit stations according to transit system requirements.

4.1.7 Flammable and-Combustible Liquid/Vapor Intrusion

Accidental flammable liquid or vapor intrusion can create the potential for a serious fire or explosion within the rail transit station. Extensive specifications to minimize emergency conditions which could result from such hazardous liquid or vapor intrusion are contained in Subsection 3.2.7 of NFPA 130.

4.1.8 Flood Protection

Rail transit passenger stations may in many areas be subject to water leaks. In addition, storm water drainage may enter at portals and shafts. Drainage and pumping stations for minimizing flooding in the rail transit station are presented in this section.

4.1.9 Traction Power

The traction power system is an integral part of a transit system's emergency preparedness. The following items should therefore be taken into consideration when developing the traction power system:

4.1.10 Graphics

Graphics are defined as the informational symbols indicating the location and use of crucial passenger station facilities and equipment. They are essential in identifying exits, exit paths, emergency exits, fire extinguishers, etc.

This section addresses guidelines for graphics used in passenger transit stations.

4.1.11 Emergency Power

In order to ensure the continued operation of such vital components as lighting and emergency ventilation systems and pumping stations, it is necessary to consider two options for furnishing uninterruptible power. One option involves the use of dual controls, feeder cables, etc., to provide redundancy should failure in one component occur. The second option is to provide an alternative power source in case the normal power source becomes unavailable.

The following station components should be considered for connection to alternative power systems:

4.2 TRAINWAY

Although the preferred method of evacuating passengers under emergency conditions is to move all or part of the train to the nearest station, in some cases it may be necessary for passengers to exit from the train while it is located between stations, in order to walk to another train or to the closest station or emergency exit. The trainway environment and available equipment can thus have a large effect on passenger evacuation in emergency situations.

The three basic types of trainway are underground (tunnels and underwater tubes), elevated, and surface (at-grade and open cut).

4.2.1 Construction

The typical rail transit trainway consists of ties, rail, and road bed of ballast and/or a steel or concrete structure. This trainway may be located in a subway tunnel or underwater tube; on an aerial structure; on the same general ground level as other vehicle roadways (at grade); or in an uncovered .depression (open cut).

Trainway construction should be of such a design as to facilitate passenger evacuation and emergency response personnel access for potential emergency scenarios. With this in mind, trainway construction should incorporate the following:

4.2.2 Lighting

4.2.2.1 Underground - An adequate level of lighting in tunnels and underwater tubes is critical for successful passenger evacuation under emergency conditions. In addition, fire/rescue personnel depend on sufficient lighting for visibility during fire suppression and/or rescue operations.

The recommended guidelines contained in Section 4.1.3 should be followed with the following modifications:

4.2.2.2 Surface - In general, emergency lighting has not been provided along the surface portions of the tail transit trainway. The belief has been that because of daylight and the less confined environment (in contrast to the dark and constricted area within the underground trainway), emergency lighting is not necessary. However, all systems operate trains during hours of darkness, and thus similar problems of insufficient visibility could arise during emergency situations. Adjacent street lights may not exist, or may provide insufficient illumination. For these reasons, some type of transportable emergency lighting should be considered for use along the trainway in emergency situations.

4.2.3 Access/Egress

Emergency exits provide the means for transit passengers to exit from emergency conditions within the trainway to a point of safety.

4.2.3.1 Underground - There are two basic types of emergency exits typically provided along the underground trainway. Tunnels constructed using the cut and cover method are usually located just below street level. Their relatively shallow depth facilitates the provision of vent shafts and emergency exit stairways (in some cases located adjacent to each other) leading up to the surface. Because of their depth, deep bore tunnels and sunken caissons (underwater tubes) possess limited exit capability directly to the surface level. For this reason, underground trainways utilizing these methods of construction must provide alternative types of emergency exits. Options used have included cross passages and/or fire doors leading to the opposite track-way area, or a separate center passageway between the adjacent track-way areas.

Recommended guidelines applicable for emergency exits from underground trainways are contained in Section 4.1.4.

4.2.3.2 Elevated - Emergency exits, so vital for underground trainways, have rarely been provided along elevated trainways. Although the height of the aerial structure presents a condition of confinement similar to that of an underground tunnel, an important difference exists. The complete availability of open air minimizes the degree of danger in comparison to poor tunnel ventilation. As in all cases of passenger evacuation, the preferred methods of moving passengers to safety involve moving all or part of the train to the nearest station, or moving a rescue train up to the front or rear, or alongside, for passenger transfer. However, in some cases, the only alternative has been for passengers to leave the trainway by means of fire department ladder trucks, an extremely slow and time-consuming process. Walkways have been used as an alternative means of teaching a point of refuge (i.e., the next station); these are discussed in Section 4.2.4 of this document.

4.2.3.3 At Grade/Open Cut - Emergency exits are not usually provided along surface trainways unless the trainways are fenced. It is common to provide emergency access gates which can be opened by transit personnel or rescue crews.

With the exception of the third rail hazard, the dangers inherent in a confined tunnel or aerial structure are not present during passenger evacuation from a disabled train on a surface trainway. In most instances, passengers ate able to simply leave the vehicle via a short ladder and walk directly to a point of safety. However, difficulties in proceeding to a point of safety may exist when the trainway is shared with highways or railroad tracks. In addition, certain sections of the surface trainway may be protected by fencing or other restraining material.

4.2.4 Walkways

4.2.4.1 Underground - Walkways, when they exist within the underground trainway, may consist of a flat surface located at track level or on a ledge located preferably at the floor height of vehicle doors. In either case, walkways may serve as a direct, high capacity exit route through the side doors of the vehicle. However, a major disadvantage is the narrowness of the walkways, which tends to restrict the movement of passengers once they exit from the vehicle.

4.2.4.2 Elevated - A walkway located along one side or in the center of an aerial structure would provide an alternative means of moving passengers from the vehicle to a point of safety (i.e., the next station).

4.2.5 Communications

Effective on-the-scene communications are vital during emergency situations and provide the major source of information for coordinating rescue/fire suppression efforts within trainway areas. Examples of various kinds of communications equipment are direct line emergency telephones connecting directly with Central Control, maintenance telephones, and mobile radio units,

4.2.6 Ventilation

Ventilation systems can be used in the event of a fire to control smoke and heat, and provide visibility and fresh air to passengers and rescue/fire suppression teams. They are therefore considered essential components in the underground trainway. In addition, the proper operation of fans and dampers may play a critical role in confining the fire and smoke to a limited area.

4.2.7 Support Equipment and Systems

4.2.7.1 Fire Protection Equipment

A. Fire Detection

B. Fire Extinguishers

C. Standpipe/Hydrant and Hose System

4.2.7.2 Other Support Equipment

Third rail power "testing" devices should be available for ensuring that the power is indeed cut off when requested.

4.2.8 Intrusion Alarm

In many cases, rail transit systems operate trains along a shared corridor. The rail transit track may be located adjacent to highways, along the center median of highways, or adjacent to freight/passenger railroads. Motor vehicle accidents or train derailments may thus intrude on the transit track area and present serious hazards to train operators unaware that any problem exists.

It is essential that both train operators and Central Control become immediately alerted when accidents cause intrusion into the transit trackarea. Consideration should be given to protection of the trainway by physical barriers or by some type of detection and alarm system.

4.2.9 Flammable and Combustible Liquid/Vapor Intrusion

Accidental flammable liquid or vapor intrusion creates the potential for a serious fire or explosion resulting in damage to the trainway and/or injury to transit passengers and personnel. Extensive specifications to minimize the hazards of such liquid or vapor intrusion are presented in Subsection 3.2.7 of NFPA 130.

4.2.10 Flood Protection

The underground and surface trainway in many areas may be subject to water intrusion. In addition, storm water drainage may enter at portals and shafts. Drainage and pumping station components to reduce flooding should comply with the guidelines presented in Section 4.1.9, with the following modifications:

4.2.11 Traction Power

See the guidelines contained in Section 4.1.10.

4.2.12 Graphics

Graphics are defined as the informational symbols indicating the location and use of crucial trainway facilities and equipment. They are essential in identifying emergency exits and routes, fire extinguishers, etc. This section presents guidelines for graphics used in and along the trainway.

4.2.13 Emergency Power

In order to ensure the continued operation of such vital components as lighting, ventilation systems and pumping stations, two options for furnishing uninterruptable power must be considered. One of these entails the use of dual controls, feeder cables, etc., to provide redundancy in case of failure in one component. The second option is to provide an alternate power source should the normal power source become unavailable.

The following trainway components should be considered for connection to alternative power systems:

Emergency power system components should be located so as to be protected from damage by water or by normal maintenance to adjacent equipment.

4.3 CENTRAL CONTROL.

Train operations within most rail transit systems are controlled from a central facility. This headquarters (Central Control) contains the personnel, offices and equipment necessary to maintain normal train operations, control power, and maintain communications throughout the system. In addition to these functions, Central Control becomes the command center for coordinating responses to emergency situations through the use of such equipment as transit radio systems, direct "hot" line telephones, traction power cut-off controls and ventilation controls. The guidelines in this section are intended to assist Central Control in responding to emergency situations occurring within the station and trainway sections of the system.

4.3.1 Emergency Exits

Diagrams indicating the exact location of every emergency exit within stations and along the trainway should be available in Central Control.

4.3.2 Communications

Central Control should possess the following minimum communication capabilities:

4.3.3 Ventilation Equipment Controls

Consideration should be given to the implementation of a series of predetermined ventilation control system scenarios which may be employed in responding to various emergency situations.

4.3.4 Traction Power Removal

Central Control should have the capability of remotely removing third rail or catenary power from any location for which Central Control is responsible.

4.3.5 Graphics

Some means of clearly indicating the location of every emergency exit, standpipe connection, pump station, ventilation fan, emergency telephone, traction power sub-station, power cut-off switch, and alarm should be available in Central Control.

 

 

5. VEHICLES

The purpose of the guidelines presented in this section is to identify those vehicle features which can minimize the consequences of an emergency situation. These vehicle guidelines are meant for use primarily in the procurement of new vehicles. For the purposes of this section, "vehicles" are considered to be of two general types: passenger rail vehicles, and rail vehicles used for emergencies.

The guidelines address transit vehicle construction, lighting, access/egress, communications, ventilation, electrical equipment and wiring, on-board support equipment, mechanical equipment, graphics, and emergency power. Whenever possible, the guidelines are general enough to allow for the site-specific differences between rail transit systems. The guidelines have been developed from a variety of sources including workshops, discussions with transit personnel, and available literature sources such as industry design guidelines, codes and standards. These performance-oriented guidelines are intended to reflect the best practices of the rail transit industry.

5.1 PASSENGER RAIL VEHICLES

The rail transit vehicle is (with the transit station) one of two environments with which passengers normally come in contact when using rail transit systems. However, the passenger rail vehicle is unique in that it is a dynamic, confined "envelope", with movement and access/egress controlled by the train crew. moreover, the vehicle represents both a potential safety hazard (e.g., burning interior materials) and an area of refuge from such a hazard (by the movement of passengers to other unaffected cars of the train). The guidelines in this section are intended to provide for rapid patron evacuation and rapid emergency response personnel access for all possible emergency scenarios.

5.1.1 Construction

Transit vehicle construction should incorporate the following:

A. General

B. Exterior

C. Interior

5.1.2 Lighting

Emergency lighting is a crucial factor which contributes to the level of visibility needed to evacuate passengers successfully.

5.1.3 Access/Egress

The normal location and manner for passengers to enter and exit a rail transit vehicle is at a station platform through doors located on the side of the train. When a disabled train cannot be moved to the nearest station, alternative methods of evacuating passengers must be used. Passengers may be moved through the end door(s) from a cat containing a fire to a point of safety within an adjacent unaffected vehicle. Other emergency situations involve the transfer of passengers from an entire disabled train to a rescue train. In this instance, the train side doors of the two trains are aligned and passengers are transferred directly to a rescue train.

5.1.3.1 End Doors

5.1.3.2 Side Doors

5.1.4 Communications

A variety of mutual communication needs exists within the environment of the rail transit vehicle. These include: train operator to passengers, passengers to train operator, and Central Control to train operator.

5.1.5 Ventilation

A critical element of emergency preparedness is the ability to provide fresh air in the vehicle interior, or to prevent smoke from entering the interior, prior to or during emergency situations.

The location, capacity, and ability to control fresh air intakes, fans, dampers, etc., all play a key role in maintaining sufficient breathing and visibility levels.

5.1.6 On-Board Support Equipment

5.1.6.1 Fire Extinguishers

5.1.6.2 Rescue Equipment

5.1.7 Special Mechanical Equipment

The rail transit vehicle should be equipped with certain types of mechanical equipment, including but not limited to emergency brakes, current collector shoe lifts, car uncoupling controls, etc. Guidelines for this equipment ate listed below.

5.1.7.1 Emergency Brakes

5.1.7.2 Current Collector Isolation

5.1.7.3 Couplers

5.1.8 Graphics

Graphics are the informational symbols indicating the location and operation of such crucial vehicle components as doors, intercoms, etc.

5.1.9 Emergency Power

The following components in each vehicle should be connected to an emergency power system:

5.2 VEHICLES USED IN EMERGENCIES

Various types of rail vehicles are used to respond to rail transit emergencies. Depending on the situation, diesel rail engines, work equipment, empty passenger trains, and road/rail vehicles may be utilized. This section focuses on the "transit emergency response vehicle" which possesses unique capabilities directed at emergencies occurring in the confined area of the trainway.

 

 

APPENDIX A

INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL AGREEMENTS

The content of inter-organizational agreements should encompass the following elements for each of these suggested organizations:

A. Fire Departments

B. Emergency Medical Service (EMS)

C. Police Departments

D. Adjacent Railroads

E. Public Utilities

F. Hospitals

G. Local/State/Federal Government

 

 

APPENDIX B

 

EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT

The following is a list of specialized emergency equipment. Appropriate transit employees should be provided with specialized training in the use of equipment pertinent to their assigned duties.